Development and Prospect of transmission component

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Development and Prospect of transmission components of China's construction machinery

development and Prospect of transmission components of China's construction machinery

information on China's construction machinery

Guide: transmission components are one of the most important core components of China's construction machinery, which are compared to the heart of construction machinery, especially for walking operations driven by traction, construction machinery is more important. In terms of value, the proportion of transmission components is also quite large. Taking a typical 5T loader as an example, the

transmission component is one of the most important core components of China's construction machinery, which is known as the heart of construction machinery, especially for the walking operation with traction as the power. In terms of value, the proportion of transmission components is also quite large. Taking a typical 5T loader as an example, the current procurement cost is about 40000 to 60000 yuan, with an average of 50000 yuan, using a dual turbine torque converter and a simple planetary transmission dual converter, plus an ordinary caliper disc brake drive axle. The cost of the whole machine is about 200000 yuan, so the transmission components account for about 25% of the cost of the whole machine. If high-tech transmission parts are used, this proportion is even higher, accounting for more than 30%. Therefore, transmission components play an important role in construction machinery

1. Overview of transmission components

the supporting enterprises of transmission components of construction machinery in China began with the "Hangzhou gear factory" established in Hangzhou in 1960, which is currently the largest construction machinery gearbox manufacturing enterprise in China - the construction machinery gearbox branch of Hangzhou Qianjin gearbox Group Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Hangzhou gear group or Hangzhou gear construction machinery gearbox branch). Later, with the assistance of hangchi, the "Sichuan gear factory", one of the largest construction machinery gearbox manufacturing enterprises in China, was established in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. From the early 1970s to the 1980s, especially after the 1990s, with the rapid development of China's construction machinery industry, transmission components have also developed rapidly. Military enterprises can carry out complex data analysis. A number of fork transmission enterprises, such as Changsha aviation industry Zhongnan Transmission Machinery Factory (hereinafter referred to as "Zhongnan Transmission"), Ganzhou Wuhuan gear box factory, Shaoxing Qianjin gear box Co., Ltd., have been established one after another, which has basically formed a system for transmission manufacturing enterprises, one of the main transmission components in China. In terms of drive axle, during this period, two typical professional drive axle manufacturers were established. One is Shandong Feicheng bridge factory, which was restructured into Feicheng Yunyu Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. in February, 2001. The other is Jiangxi fenyiqiao factory, which was later restructured into a private enterprise. These two enterprises mainly produce loader drive axles. In addition, Anqing axle factory of Anhui Heli Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "anqing axle") specializes in the production of forklift bridges. At present, the annual sales volume of forklift bridges has reached about 100000, and it is currently the largest forklift bridge supporting manufacturing enterprise in China. There are also some enterprises, such as Xuzhou Liangyu Transmission Machinery Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "Xuzhou Liangyu") and Yangzhou Hanjiang David Engineering Machinery Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "Yangzhou David"), which are comprehensive production enterprises of bridges and boxes. In addition, joint-venture and wholly-owned transmission component manufacturing enterprises established after the 1990s, such as Feicheng Jincheng axle Co., Ltd., a joint venture between Feicheng Yunyu company and Hong Kong specializing in the production of loader bridges, and Liuzhou ZF Machinery Co., Ltd., a joint venture between Liugong and German ZF company specializing in the production of high-tech bridges and boxes Xuzhou Meichi axle Co., Ltd., a joint venture between XCMG and American Meichi company specializing in the production of various construction machinery drive axles, and Carraro (Qingdao) transmission Co., Ltd., a wholly-owned enterprise established by Carraro, Italy, in Qingdao, China. So far, there are about 30 enterprises, including transmission components enterprises mainly producing hydraulic torque converters. In 2007, its sales have reached about 5billion yuan, Basically, a small industry of transmission components has been formed in China

according to incomplete statistics, there are six enterprises mainly producing hydraulic torque converters in the small industry of transmission components of construction machinery in China, which is composed of more than 30 enterprises. In 2007, about 210000 to 220000 hydraulic torque converters were sold. Among them, the top three are "Shaanxi Aerospace Power High Tech Co., Ltd." (hereinafter referred to as "Shaanxi Aerospace Power"), "Shantui Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. transmission branch" (hereinafter referred to as "Shantui transmission branch") and Zhejiang Linhai machinery factory. In 2007, their annual sales were 95000 units, 34000 units and 33000 units respectively, accounting for more than 75% of the whole industry. Shaanxi Aerospace Power and Shantui transmission branch also produces some gearboxes; A total of 9 enterprises mainly produce transmissions (transmissions). In 2007, a total of 180000 transmissions were produced and sold, mainly for loaders and forklifts. Among them, there are about 50000 loaders and 110000 forklifts. The top three are hangchi construction machinery gearbox branch, Ganzhou Wuhuan and Zhongnan Transmission, with 60000, 30000 and 30000 sets respectively; About 10 enterprises mainly produce drive axles. In 2007, about 220000 drive axles were produced, mainly forklift and loader drive axles. Among them, there are about 120000 forklift bridges, 80000 loader bridges and 20000 other bridges. The top three manufacturers of drive axle are anqing axle factory and forklift truck bridge factory, which produce more than 91000 pieces, accounting for the first place. Meichi axle company mainly produces loader bridges, as well as cranes, graders, rollers, forklifts and other special engineering machinery bridges. In 2007, it produced about 65000 drive axles, accounting for the second place, but its sales reached 1.2 billion yuan, accounting for the first place. The third place is Feicheng Yunyu and Feicheng Jincheng, with a total production of about 40000 bridges. These three companies produced nearly 200000 drive axles in 2007, accounting for about 90% of the total, and are the most important drive axle supporting enterprises

at present, from the perspective of the whole construction machinery industry, about 400000 gearboxes and 1million bridges are provided for the main engine every year, but the main engine enterprises produce and provide their own equipment account for more than 60%, and only about 40% are produced and provided by professional factories. The loaders and forklifts are the most used for bridges and boxes. The main machine enterprises of loaders produce their own products and have stronger supporting capacity. In 2007, more than 160000 loaders were produced and sold, with only about 50000 professionally equipped gearboxes, and about 100000 to 110000 mainframe enterprises supporting themselves. There are about 320000 supporting loader drive axles, only about 80000 professional supporting axles, and more than 240000 supporting axles of the host itself. Therefore, the supporting capacity of the loader host is more than 70%. Among the 50000 Loaders' supporting gearboxes, hangchi accounted for about 30000, Xuzhou Liangyu, Liuzhou ZF, Shantui transmission branch each had about 4000, and Xiamen Yitong had more than 2000. Among the 110000 transmissions of forklifts, the vast majority are mechanical transmissions with synchronizers, a few are ordinary mechanical transmissions, and some are hydraulic mechanical transmissions. Forklift drive components host enterprises have few supporting facilities, and most of them are provided by professional factories. In addition to Ganzhou Fifth Ring Road and Zhongnan Transmission, the enterprises that mainly support the gearbox for forklifts also have "Shao gear"

2. Technical development of transmission components

among the main core components of construction machinery in China, only transmission components have the most perfect domestic supporting system, the highest market satisfaction rate, and are also the key components with the most independent intellectual property rights. In terms of value, the domestic matching satisfaction rate of hydraulic components, one of the domestic core components, is only 30%, especially the variable hydraulic components with high value, which almost all rely on imports. However, the satisfaction rate of domestic accessories of transmission core components is more than 70% - 75%, and only a few high-end transmission components and large-scale transmission components still need to be imported

2.1 overview of the technical development of domestic transmission components

the technical development of forklifts and bulldozers, such as loaders and elastic components in sensors for measuring load and displacement, has promoted the development of domestic transmission components. The largest number and wide range of loader transmission components basically started from the ZL50 (then called z450) wheel loader transmission system jointly developed by Liugong and Tiangong Institute in 1970. Its transmission is composed of a dual turbine hydraulic torque converter and a simple planetary power shift transmission. This can be said to be a great contribution to China's construction machinery industry, especially to China's first and most beautiful national brand loader industry. Its great contribution is that in the 1970s, it realized the single lever control and power shift of speed change, and on the surface, there are only two forward gears and one reverse gear manually operated. In fact, there are four forward gears and two reverse gears, which are automatically realized without manual operation. Therefore, when the driver operates, there is only one gear, only the driver needs to operate forward and reverse, and there is no need to shift gears. Therefore, the operation is very flexible, convenient and labor-saving, so the operation efficiency is high. In addition, the gearbox is a simple planetary row, and its structure and oil circuit are relatively simple, which is particularly suitable for the manufacturing level of China in the 1970s and 1980s. Therefore, the emergence of this double change has developed very rapidly in China. More than 30 years have passed since its emergence, and this double change is still playing a leading role. At the same time, maintenance, service and accessories are relatively easy and common, so this pair has become a household product in China's construction machinery industry, spreading all over the country. In 2007, China produced and sold more than 160000 loaders, basically about 140000 of which used the double variable. The current market price of the double change is about 20000 yuan. Major enterprises in the world that have made double changes can only sigh with admiration when they see such double changes and prices in China! They do not believe or understand that this is the double change with Chinese characteristics developed by China in the 1970s and with independent intellectual property rights. It can be said that without this double change with Chinese characteristics at that time, it is difficult to imagine today's loader industry in China. This double change has dominated China's construction machinery industry for more than 30 years and is still playing a leading role. With the development of transmission technology, this kind of double change also has low efficiency, which does not meet the requirements of energy saving and consumption reduction today. At the same time, the structure also has defects that cause poor reliability and short service life. Therefore, today, there is an urgent need to replace it with a new type of double transformation with high efficiency, energy saving, high reliability and high technological level

the largest and most widely used 1.5 ~ 3T forklift gearbox is also in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on the introduction of Japanese TCM forklift technology, the forklift gearbox has been successfully developed. The largest amount is the mechanical gearbox with synchronizer, some are the hydraulic mechanical gearbox with ordinary three element hydraulic torque converter, and the ones above 5T are basically hydraulic mechanical gearbox. At present, the general level, the largest amount and wide range of domestic forklift supporting gearbox can basically meet the needs

based on the introduction of Komatsu D85 and D65 technologies from Japan in the early 1980s, the bulldozer gearbox has achieved successful localization research and development. At present, it can basically meet the supporting needs. Before the 1990s, the transmissions of road rollers were basically ordinary mechanical transmissions, with very backward performance. Since the 21st century, the mechanical gearbox with synchronizer has been gradually used on the roller, which has brought the transmission system technology of the roller to a new level. After 2002, Hangzhou gear group gradually applied the imported ZF double variable technology to the roller, making the roller gearbox enter the electronic control period again, and the technology has taken another big step

in terms of drive axle, since the 1960s and 1970s, the common drive axle has been combined with heavy vehicles on the basis of absorbing foreign loader and forklift technology

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